Tulipa - Tulip
DESCRIPTION: These are an assortment of vigorous bulbs that bear some of the most attractive flowers in the spring and early summer. These plants are natives of Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. Tulips thrive in cooler climates; they can be grown in the South only if, after their purchase in the fall, the bulbs are stored at about 40 degrees several weeks before they are planted. The kinds of tulips that have multiple colored petals are called "broken" tulips. The flowers of these bulbs have stripes of a different color and/or feathering near the edges of the petals. They can be very attractive. Flowers that have markings on a pink or cerise background are called Roses. Some have purple or violet markings on a white background and are called Bybloemens. Some, which have brown, red or purple on a yellow background, are called Bizarres. "Breaking" is caused by a virus disease that may be infectious. The "breaking" can be produced artificially by grafting a piece of diseased bulb onto a healthy one, or by aphids. In nature, the disease is partially spread by aphids feeding on the bulbs. The leaves are usually affected, showing pale green stripes and spots. The plant is also smaller and will not produce as large a crop of flowers as a healthy plant. It is advisable to keep the "broken" plants away from healthy plants to keep the disease from spreading. All Tulips are classed into two groups, the Early-flowering, which usually bloom outside in April and the May-flowering, which bloom in May. These groups are subdivided into 16 divisions according to characters of the flowers and the habits of growth. The species are described below in the varieties section.
POTTING: Ordinary garden varieties are the best subjects to use when cultivating outdoors. The hardiest growing kinds for growing at the front of perennial borders are T. Clusiana, T. Eichleri, T. Fosteriana, T. Greigii, and T. Kaufmanniana. Usually, under North American climates, the bulbs gradually deteriorate and after a few seasons reach a point where they hardly flower, if at all. For best results, newly purchased bulbs should be planted each fall. This guarantees consistency in the time of blooming, size of flowers and their heights. If this is done, the old bulbs can be planted in a less noticeable part of the garden and can be used as cut flowers. Tulips love sunshine, but they can handle a little shade during the hottest part of the day. They flourish in well-drained, fertile, sandy loam. The soil should be dug deeply and moderately fertilized. It is advisable to use well-rotted compost instead of animal manure. Bone meal is great for tulips and it should be spread at the rate of 2 ounces per square yard on top of the soil and turned under deeply with the garden fork. The best time to plant the early flowering Tulips is in October; the bulbs of May-flowering Tulips should be planted in late October or early in November. Bulbs of early-flowering Tulips should be covered with 3-4 inches of soil on heavy land and 4-5 inches in light land. They need to be placed 5-6 inches apart, unless they are planted with Pansies, Forget-me-nots, Primulas, or other spring flowering plants; it should then be 8 or 9 inches apart. Bulbs of May-flowering plants should be covered with 4 inches of dirt on heavy land and 5 inches on light land. They should be set 6 inches apart, unless they are planted with other spring blooming plants, then it should be 9-12 inches. The best way to protect your bulbs, if there are mice problems in your area, is to line the perimeter of your beds with fine wire mesh to a depth of 9-10 inches and to cover the surface in fall. It may be removed in late winter. Small groups of bulbs may be planted in baskets of wire mesh. In cold climates, it is smart to cover the beds with salt-marsh hay, leaves, evergreen branches, or other suitable protection, after the bed has frozen up to a depth of an inch or so. Manure, compost, or other materials that exclude air shouldn't be used for winter covering. When the shoots start to show above the ground in late winter or spring and danger of hard freezing is gone, the material used for winter protection should gradually be removed. Dull, humid days rather than windy, sunny ones should be chosen to remove it, if possible. When they are about 2 inches high, the spring application of fertilizer for Tulips should be applied. The ground between the plants should be stirred once in a while. It is necessary to saturate the ground to keep it from drying out during long periods of dry weather. If there isn't enough water, short stems, small flowers and poor bulb development will most likely result. When Tulips are used as cut flowers, only the small, highest leaf should be cut along with the bloom or else the flowers won't be able to store enough food in the bulbs for the next years blooms. As soon as their petals wither, the flowers should be cut to prevent seedpods from forming. This also reduces the plants ability to store an adequate supply of food. During their summer season of dormancy, Tulips can either be left in the ground or stored, the latter being the best method. Tulips should be left to die and then carefully dug up and stored in a cool cellar. This way the soil can be dug over and fertilized. When digging them up, be careful not to stab or bruise the bulbs. They should be spread out in a dry, shaded, well-ventilated place to dry for a few days and then the old roots and other rubble should be cleaned off. The bulbs should be dusted with sulfur and stored in thin layers in shallow trays that have adequate ventilation (preferably with bottoms made of wire mesh or screening), paper bags, or old nylon stockings hung from a roof or other support. Tulips are great plants for forcing into early bloom in greenhouses or homes. To grow these successfully, top-quality bulbs should be planted early, from September to November. Single Early and Double Early varieties are the easiest to grow as pot plants. They can be forced to bloom from January onwards. Mendels can also bloom in January. Darwins, Dutch Breeders, Cottage and other May-flowering types are better to be grown in greenhouses. They aren't successful in homes because they don't receive the sunshine and cooler temperatures that they need. Tulips that are used for forcing may be planted in pots or deep flower pans that are 6-10 inches in diameter, or in 4-inch-deep flats. The plants that are to bloom first should be planted first and the later-blooming ones planted in succession. The containers should be filled with light, loamy, porous soil. A mixture of good topsoil (lightened with sand if it is heavy) and a modest amount of well-rotted compost, peat moss, leaf mold, or humus, is sufficient. The soil should be lightly packed and at a level where the tips of the bulbs are level with the rim of the container. Place the bulbs so close together that they almost touch, then fill in with soil and press firmly as possible with your fingers. The finished surface should be smooth and even, with the tips of the bulbs just barely peeking out of the soil. After planting, water thoroughly. When you have finished planting them, they need to be set in a cool, moist, frost-free dark cellar or similar place for 10 to 12 weeks to stimulate root growth. A temperature in the area of 40 degrees is essential. When the pots are filled completely with healthy white roots and have shoots that are 1-2 inches long, they can be brought indoors where they are forced into bloom. At first they should be shaded from direct sunlight, but as the shoots turn green they should be allowed more light and as soon as they are their normal green color as much sunlight as possible should be given. It is better to start the forcing of Tulips in fairly cool temperatures. 45-50 degrees at night with a gradual increase to 55-65 degrees and a slight increase in the day temperature is reasonable. Single Early and Double Early varieties will respond if put into forcing temperatures of 60-70 degrees right away and other kinds will respond a little sooner if they are started in a temperature of 60 degrees and reduced when the flowers begin to show color. During the forcing period, an adequate amount of water is necessary; if the roots become dry, the flowers will not develop and they'll eventually dry up. The Tulips may need to be staked and tied to maintain a neat appearance. Thin bamboo or wire stakes can be used. As soon as the flowers reach their full development, move them to a cooler location. This will cause them to open a bit later, but will result in better blooms.
PROPAGATION: When the bulbs are lifted in the summer, offsets can be removed, stored and replanted in autumn. Tulips may also be raised from seeds that are planted in flats of sandy soil in a cold frame as soon as they are ripe. The new plants won't produce flowers for several years, however. When the seedlings are well developed, they should be planted in a bed of sandy soil made up in the frame. Unless you have suitable soil and climateconditions, success with propagating your own tulips isn't likely to happen. Generally, gardeners buy bulbs from commercial growers.
Wild or "botanical" Tulips - T. Clusiana (the Lady Tulip), rose-red & white; T. Eichleri, vermilion & yellow; T. Fosteriana, scarlet; T. Greigii, intense scarlet; T. Kaufmanniana, cream & carmine; T. Batalinii, pale yellow; T. biflora, pale & deep yellow; T. chrysantha, yellow & cherry-rose; T. Hageri, copper-red; T. linifolia, scarlet; T. patens (persica), yellow-bronze, fragrant; T. praestans, orange-scarlet & its variety Fusilier; T. pulchella (the Crocus Tulip), rose-purple; T. tarda, primrose-yellow; T. viridiflora, light green margined w/ yellow.
Single Early Tulips - these donít grow as high as the May-flowering kinds: Couleur Cardinal, red; Crown Imperial, mahogany-red w/ wide yellow band; Cullinan, soft pink; DeWet, golden-orange; Fred Moore, terracotta tinted w/ golden buff; Ibis, pink; Keizerskroon, red & yellow; Mon Tresor, yellow; Pink Beauty, rose pink; Pink Perfection, white flushed w/ pink; Prince of Austria, orange-scarlet; Sunburst, golden-yellow; Van der Neer, purple-mauve; Vermilion Brilliant, vermilion-scarlet; White Hawk, white; Yellow Prince, canary yellow.
Double Early Tulips - these flowers usually last a bit longer than the single-flowered kinds: Couronne d'Or, yellow flushed w/ orange, Dante, blood-red; Electra, carmine-pink; El Toreador, salmon & orange; Marechal Niel, yellow & orange; Mr. van der Hoef, pure yellow; Murillo, soft pink; Orange Nassau, orange-red; Peach Blossom, rose-pink; Schoonoord, white; Tea Rose, primrose yellow stained w/ pink; Vuurbaak, orange-scarlet; Willemsoord, carmine edged w/ white.
Mendel Tulips - these usually bloom before the Darwin Tulips & later than the Single Early & Double Early kinds: Amidonette, lilac-rose w/ white margins; Athleet, pure white; Brightling, rose-pink stained w/ orange; Her Grace, pink & white; Hildegarda, dark red; Krelage's Triumph, dark red; Orange Wonder, bronze-scarlet stained w/ orange; Pink Gem, white margined w/ pink; Scarlet Admiral, red w/ black center; Weber, white edged w/ lilac-rose; White Sail, cream white changing to pure white.
Triumph Tulips - these have tall, sturdy stems & lg. flowers: Bandoeng, mahogany-red & yellow; Bruno Walter, golden-brown w/ purple tint; Elisabeth Evers, carmine-rose; Elmus, cherry-red edged w/ white; Glory of Noordwyk, lilac-rose; Johanna, deep salmon-pink; Kansas, pure white; Korneforos, cerise-red; Paris, orange-red & yellow; Piccadilly, cherry-red w/ white margin; Princess Beatrix, orange-scarlet edged w/ gold; Red Giant, bright red; Telescopium, reddish violet.
Cottage Tulips - these are tall & vigorous & usually have long, pointed flowers. They bloom in May: Advance, orange-scarlet; Arethusa, lemon-yellow; Belle Jaune, golden-yellow; Carrara, white; Dido, pink, yellow & orange; Geisha, pink; Golden Harvest, golden yellow; Grenadier, orange; Ivory Glory, cream-white changing to pure white; Jeanne Desor, soft yellow edged w/ orange; Marshal Haig, scarlet; Mrs. John T. Scheepers, yellow; Mrs. Moon, yellow; Perseus, orange; Rosabella, pink; Rosy Wings, salmon-pink.
Lily-flowered Tulips - they bloom about the same time as Cottage Tulips & they have pointed petals that curve outwards at the tips: Alaska, yellow; Capt. Fryatt, ruby-purple; Dyanito, vermilion, Ellen Willmott, primrose-yellow, Florestan, crimson; Gisela, soft pink stained w/ yellow; Mariette, salmon-pink; Painted Lady, yellow & orange-red; Picotee, white edged w/ rose; Stanislaus, orange; White Duchess, white; White Triumphator, pure white.
Dutch Breeder Tulips - these have lg. flowers on long, thick stems & have colors that most Tulips lack: Bacchus, violet; Barcarolle, blue-purple; Chappaqua, cherry-pink; Cherbourg, old gold & bronze; Dillenburg, salmon-orange; Dom Pedro, coffee-brown; Indian Chief, red-brown; J.J. Bouwman, mahogany & bronze; Limnos, salmon-pink & orange; Louis XIV, violet & bronze; President Hoover, orange-scarlet; Tantalus, light yellow shaded w/ violet; Velvet King, royal purple.
Darwin Tulips - they have long, strong stems & lg. flowers, which are more square rather than pointed in outline: Adoration, flesh-pink; Afterglow, rose-amber; Bartigon, cochineal-red; Bleu Aimable, lavender; Charles Needham, brilliant-red; City of Haarlem, scarlet; Demeter, violet-blue; Farncombe Sanders, scarlet; Giant, purple; Glacier, pure white; Golden Age, deep yellow; Helen Madison, pink; Insurpassable, lilac; King George V, carmine-red; King Harold, blood-red; La Tulipe Noire, maroon-black; Mahogany, dark mahogany; Niphetos, deep cream; Pride of Haarlem, carmine-rose; Pride of Zwanenburg, rose-pink; Princess Elizabeth, dark pink; Prunus, salmon-pink; Queen of Bartigons, pink; Rose Copeland, pink; Scarlet O'Hara, scarlet; Smiling Queen, pink; The Bishop, purple; Venus, silvery-rose; White Giant, white; William Copeland, mauve-lilac; William Pitt, strawberry-red; Yellow Giant, yellow; Zwanenburg, white.
Rembrandt Tulips - these are Darwins that have broken (see "Breaking" above); they are multi-colored flowers that are striped, feathered or blotched: American Flag, rose-red & white; Clara, pink, scarlet & white; Cordell Hull, white & rose-red; Kathleen, pink & white; Madame de Pompadour, white & lilac; Paljas, white & scarlet; Pierrette, white & violet-purple; Refinement, white & red.
Parrot Tulips - these bloom in May & are very beautiful with lg., shaggy flowers; they are, however, very weak stemmed, so they require a sheltered place to grow: Black Parrot, maroon-black; Blue Parrot, lavender-mauve; Fantasy, pink & green; Firebird, scarlet & green; Galdelan, purple-mauve; Orange Favorite, orange & green; Orange Parrot, mahogany & gold, very fragrant; Sunshine, golden; Texas Gold, golden-yellow; Therese, rose-red & scarlet; Van Dijck, pink, similar to Fantasy.
Late Double Tulips - they are sometimes labeled as Peony-flowered Tulips; they are sturdy & produce lg., long-lasting, many-petaled flowers on long stems in May: Erose, old rose; Golden Lion, golden-yellow; Clara Carder, clear pink; Livingstone, cherry pink; Mount Tacoma, white; Nizza, cream marked w/ crimson; Pavo, rose-pink; Uncle Tom, deep wine-red.
T. Kaufmanniana hybrids - often called Water Lily Tulips; they have lg. blooms in March or early April: Aurora, deep yellow & red; Brilliant, red & gold; Edwin Fischer, yellow, red & carmine; Johann Strauss, cream & red; Mendelssohn, yellow & carmine-rose; Robert Schumann, chrome-yellow & crimson; Scarlet Elegance and Vivaldi, cream-yellow & deep pink.
T. Fosteriana hybrids - they have huge flowers vividly colored in April: Feu Superbe, red w/ yellow base to flower; Galatea, orange-scarlet; Holland's Glory, enormous blooms of glowing orange-red; Princeps, vermilion red; Red Emperor, lg., bright red blooms; Red Matador, vivid orange-red; Red Riband, bright red; Rockery Beauty, brilliant red, very dwarf plant.
The best varieties for forcing include:
Single Early Tulips - Crown Imperial, Cullinan, Fred Moore, General de Wet, Keizerskroon, Mon Tresor, Pink Perfection, White Hawk, Yellow Prince.
Double Early Tulips - El Toreador, Marechal Niel, Mr. van der Hoef, Murillo, Peach Blossom, Schoonoord, Tea Rose.
Mendel Tulips - Amidonette, Athleet, Brightling, Her Grace, Hildegarda, Krelage's Triumph, Orange Wonder, Pink Gem, Weber, White Sail.
Triumph Tulips - Elmus, Glory of Noordwijk, Kansas, Korneforos, Paris, Red Giant, Telescopium.
Cottage Tulips - Advance, Albino, Carrara, Dido, Lemon Queen (Mother's Day), Mongolia, Rosabella.
Breeder Tulips - Cherbourg, Indian Chief, Limnos, Tantalus.
Darwin Tulips - Adoration, Demeter, Glacier, Insurpassable, King George V, Rose Copeland, Pride of Haarlem, The Bishop, Venus William Copland, William Pitt.
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